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              大數據預測草地貪夜蛾遷飛路線 防治也要跟上!
              2019-05-27 10:14:35 來源:農藥快訊信息網 瀏覽:1369

                  最新蟲情:全國農業技術推廣服務中心5月14日消息,繼云南、廣西、貴州、廣東、湖南見蟲之后,4月下旬以來,草地貪夜蛾在海南、福建、浙江、湖北、四川、江西、重慶、河南相繼查見幼蟲為害,蟲情擴散蔓延明顯加快。截至5月10日,13省(區)61個市(州)261縣(市、區)查見幼蟲為害玉米,初步統計發生面積108萬畝。目前距離江蘇省最近的發生點為杭州建德,距離江蘇省直線距離不到200公里。

               

                  草地貪夜蛾是一種原發于中南美洲的雜食性害蟲,由于它們的幼蟲總是成群結隊、行軍般地轉移取食,所以也叫行軍蟲。草地貪夜蛾不僅很能吃,而且繁殖能力也很強,更可怕的是,它們的飛行速度也特別快。2018年5月,草地貪夜蛾入侵印度,只用了3個月就蔓延全印度。現在,草地貪夜蛾入侵中國,這些破壞力極強的“幺蛾子”,接下來會飛到哪里呢?又該怎么預防呢?

               

                  為了解決這個問題,最近,南京農業大學的學生和老師們迅速行動起來,運用大數據技術預測出了這種蟲子的飛行軌跡:課題組綜合近些年草地貪夜蛾在其它國家的飛行軌跡,發現了它們的遷飛習慣,從而預測出它們的遷飛路線。

               

                  根據預測,接下來,草地貪夜蛾會通過東、西兩條路徑進入我國北方玉米主產區,威脅我國玉米生產。西線路徑從緬甸進入云南,經貴州進入四川、重慶、河南,甚至到達陜西、山西。東線路徑從越南、老撾、泰國進入兩廣,依靠強勁的西南風,直達長江流域、淮河流域,進入我國玉米主產區華北平原,甚至東北平原。

               

                  有了這條可參考的飛行軌跡,相關的省市區可以提前進行防御,避免可能造成的損失。

               

                  專家表示,由于草地貪夜蛾是新遷入的害蟲,農民們對它的認知以及防范方法都很匱乏,可能會在一定程度上錯失防治的有效時機。因此各地要強化預警監測。因此,農民朋友最近一段時間要注意莊稼地里的毛毛蟲,和普通的蛾子幼蟲相比,草地貪夜蛾的額頭上多出4個點,而且個頭也大一些,如果發現,一定要及時上報。

               

              草地貪夜蛾高清圖鑒

              圖片來源:中國科學院動物所張潤志研究員(拍攝于云南曲靖,2019.05.17)

               

                  對于草地貪夜蛾的防治,各地正在加緊時間進行研究。生態調控技術、成蟲誘殺技術以及幼蟲防治技術等,都能在一定程度上預防蟲害。

               

              草地貪夜蛾蔓延的原因是什么?

                  草地貪夜蛾它本身具有很強的繁殖能力,一個雌蛾可以產2,000粒卵。它的適生范圍廣,可以在十幾度到三十幾度的溫度范圍內生存。另外它的寄生范圍廣,除了玉米外,也會寄生于甘蔗、高粱、谷子上,甚至在一些雜草上也能生存。此外,它具有遠距離遷飛的能力,能夠很快從一個區域擴散到另外一個更大的范圍,因此蔓延速度比較快。

               

                  草地貪夜蛾對多種化學農藥產生了抗性,有些傳統的化學農藥例如部分菊酯類農藥對它的防治效果不是特別好。再者,草地貪夜蛾是外來入侵的害蟲,新環境中沒有天敵來制約它,總體數量在短期內就容易比較快速地增長。

               

              草地貪夜蛾為什么有抗藥性?

                  草地貪夜蛾原產于美洲,是玉米上非常普遍的害蟲,當地農民常年頻繁使用農藥,它就產生了抗性,當它從美洲到非洲的時候,就已經攜帶著抗藥性基因,因此它對一些農藥產生了抗性。

               

                  目前可以采取了哪些方法來防治貪夜蛾?

               

                  草地貪夜蛾畢竟是一個新的入侵害蟲。目前采用的就是燈光誘殺、性誘殺和化學防治,但以化學的應急防治為主。殺蟲燈對成蟲進行誘殺可以降低田間的落卵量。利用信息素可以減少雌蛾的交配率,也可以減輕草地貪夜蛾的種群數量。

               

              沒有登記農藥,怎么辦?

                  根據新《農藥管理條例》第三十九條:因防治突發重大病蟲害等緊急需要,國務院農業主管部門可以決定臨時生產、使用規定數量的未取得登記或者禁用、限制使用的農藥,必要時應當會同國務院對外貿易主管部門決定臨時限制出口或者臨時進口規定數量、品種的農藥。

               

                  所以大家就不要擔心沒有農藥可用的問題了。

               

              草地貪夜蛾怎么防治呢?

                  因為草地貪夜蛾是一個外來物種,目前我國沒有登記的農藥品種,但是自從草地貪夜蛾入侵以后,國內也做了大量的工作。例如中國農科院植保所已經對常用的21種農藥進行了篩選,從中選出對草地貪夜蛾防治效果好、高效低毒的一些農藥,可以用于草地貪夜蛾的應急防治,是可以控制草地貪夜蛾危害的。

               

                  室內試驗結果表明,1%甲氨基阿維菌素苯甲酸鹽EC、5%甲氨基阿維菌素苯甲酸鹽ME、5%啶蟲脒EC、75%乙酰甲胺磷SP、6%乙基多殺菌素SC和20%甲氰菊酯EC對草地貪夜蛾2齡幼蟲具有較強的毒殺作用,校正死亡率超過90%。20%甲氰菊酯EC、15%唑蟲酰胺SC、25 g/L溴氰菊酯EC、25 g/L高效氯氟氰菊酯EC和20%呋蟲胺SC對草地貪夜蛾卵具有較高的毒殺活性,校正孵化抑制率可達80%以上。

               

                  湖北仙桃田間試驗表明,9%甲維·茚蟲威SC、15%甲維·茚蟲威SC、10%甲維▪虱螨脲SC、35%氯蟲苯甲酰胺WDG、10%四氯蟲酰胺SC等藥劑對草地貪夜蛾的防效達90%以上。

               

                  全國農業技術推廣服務中心《2019年草地貪夜蛾防控技術方案(試行)》提及,成蟲可搭配性誘劑和食誘劑,集中連片使用殺蟲燈誘殺;幼蟲可選用防控夜蛾科害蟲的高效低毒的殺蟲劑噴霧防治;卵孵化初期可選擇白僵菌、綠僵菌、蘇云金桿菌制劑、多殺菌素、苦參堿、印楝素等生物農藥噴施。

               

                  聯合國糧農組織防控草地貪夜蛾指導手冊及國外登記防控該害蟲的化學農藥有氯蟲苯甲酰胺、氟氯氰菊酯、溴氰蟲酰胺等。

               

              除了化學農藥,有沒有其他的防治方法嗎?

                  作為一種昆蟲,草地貪夜蛾有很多的天敵,在國外,會用赤眼蜂或黑卵蜂進行防治。同時一些生物農藥,像Bt制劑、白僵菌等都可以進行防治。草地貪夜蛾入侵到中國以后,國內做了很多的研究工作,像中國農科院植保所在云南的田間調查中已經發現了它的很多天敵,像一些幼蟲的寄生蜂,還有白僵菌、綠僵菌都能夠在其體內寄生。所以如果把天敵這個因素考慮進去,就可以篩選一些對它防治效果好的天敵進入生物防治,或者利用生物農藥進行防治也是完全有可能的。

               

                  草地貪夜蛾主要是危害玉米,我們還可以運用農業措施,如嵌套一些非寄主植物,這樣可以減輕草地貪夜蛾的擴散,同時也可以增加生物多樣性,增加天敵的種群。

               

              如何對生長不同階段的草地貪夜蛾進行防治?

                  草地貪夜蛾它有卵、蛹、幼蟲和成蟲四種形態,一般的從卵、幼蟲、成蟲這幾個階段進行防治。在成蟲階段可以用殺蟲燈或性誘劑進行誘殺;在幼蟲階段,可以利用生物農藥或化學農藥進行防治;在卵期,可以使用一些具有殺卵作用的化學農藥防治。在成蟲期,可以選用一些對草地貪夜蛾卵寄生效果好的赤眼蜂或黑卵蜂等天敵進行防控。

              (來源:央廣網、綠色植保衛視、江蘇植保等)

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